There was no immediate claim of responsibility.
The attack happened during a protest against the death of a shopkeeper in a police operation targeting alcohol bootleggers, an unnamed official said.
"We can confirm that so far 11 bodies have been brought to our hospitals as well as 25 wounded", the AFP news agency quoted Health Ministry spokesman Wahid Majroh as saying on January 4.
Initial reports immediately after the blast put the death toll at six officers but police official said that by Friday morning, the number of those killed had significantly increased.
"He detonated his vest very close to police who were trying to stop the protesters", Mujahid told AFP.
Russian Daily Oil Output Edges Up in 2017 to 30-Year High
However, rising US production, which is on the verge of breaking through 10 million bpd, has tempered the bullish outlook. Oil prices were up slightly on Thursday as a pipeline outage in Britain continued to lift Brent crude prices.
Kabul has suffered repeated suicide attacks in recent weeks.
In December alone IS claimed three attacks that killed dozens of civilians.
The IS group has gained ground in Afghanistan since it first appeared in the region in 2015 and has scaled up its attacks in Kabul, including on security installations and the country's Shiite minority.
USA forces led an invasion to drive Taliban extremists from power after Al-Qaeda militants whose leaders were sheltering in Afghanistan carried out the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States.